GNI is the total amount of income earned by residents of an economy from engaging in various economic activities within or outside the territory of the economy. Residents incorporate individuals and institutions; resident individuals are those who have stayed or intend to stay in the economy for 12 months or longer, irrespective of their nationality; resident institutions are production units that operate in the economy. Example: A non-resident worker who has worked in Macao for one year or above is considered as resident individual; similarly, the branch office of a foreign bank operating in Macao is regarded as resident institution.

   + Factor income earned by residents from outside the economy
    - Factor income earned by non-residents from within the economy

Factor income includes Direct Investment Income (such as dividends), Portfolio Investment Income (such as distributed dividends from shares and interest received from debt securities), Other Investment Income (such as interests received from deposits and loans) and Compensation of Employees.